The Sun's nearest neighbor

Earth's nearest star is, of course, our Sun located 93 million miles away. But common references to Earth's "nearest star" usually refer to Alpha Centauri A, a star in a nearby stellar system consisting of three suns. The Alpha Centauri system is located in the constellation Centaurus.

While Alpha Centauri A is considered the nearest star to Earth-at just over four light years distant-its smaller companion, the red dwarf star Alpha Centauri C or Proxima Centauri, can be a tad closer due to the long, slow dance of orbital mechanics. Overall, the Alpha Centauri system is approximately 4.2 light years from us (a light-year is the distance a beam of light travels in 365 days-9,460 billion kilometers or 5,880 billion miles).

Alpha Centauri A is the third brightest star in our night sky although to see it you must travel to either southern Florida or Texas. The star is best seen during the month of May when it is highest in the southern sky.

In recent decades, some astronomers have begun referring to Alpha Centauri A as "Rigil Kentaurus", which literally means "foot of the centaur" in Greek. However, both names, Alpha or Rigil, are still correct to use for this Sunlike star.

Alpha Centauri A is nearly a twin of our Sun although it is slightly larger and brighter (spectral type G2 with an apparent magnitude of +0.01). Alpha Centauri B is a yellow-orange star, slightly smaller and cooler than our Sun.

Because Alpha Centauri A is so Sunlike, some astronomers have speculated that there might be Earth-like planets orbiting it although none have been detected so far. And because it is so similar to our Sun, Alpha Centauri has been a popular destination in space-age mythology-from author A.E. Van Vogt's classic 1944 science-fiction tale of suspended-animation star trekking, titled "Far Centaurus", to television's long wandering "Lost in Space" Robinson family.

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